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ARNISON, G., CARLO RUBIA, SIMON VAN DER MEER et al. - THE DISCOVERY OF THE WEAK NUCLEAR FORCES, THE Z BOSON AND W BOSON.

Experimental Observation of lepton pairs of invariant mass around 95 GeV/c2 at the Cern SPS collider. (together with 137 others from Cern) (+) Experimental observations of isolated large transverse energy electrons with associated missing energy at Vs=540 GeV. (together with 134 others from Cern).

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Amstyerdam, North Holland, 1983. 4to. Bound in 2 contemp. hcloth. Gilt lettring to spines. In: "Physics Letters", Vol. 122 B and Vol. 126 B. (8),517 pp. and (10),525 pp. (Entire volumes offered). The papers: pp. 394-410 (vol. 122 B) and pp. 103-116 (vol. 126 B). Clean and fine. ¶ First editions of the 2 papers recording the discovery of the intermediate vector bosons in 1983 at CERN, which marked the culmination of a long effort to unify the theory of weak and electromagnetic forces.

"The W and Z bosoms are the elementary particles that mediate the weak interactions.. Their discovery was a major success for what is now called the Standard Model of Particle Physics... Following the spectacular success of quantum electrodynamics in the 1950s, attempts were undertaken to formulate a similar theory of the weak nuclear force. This culminated around 1968 in a unified theory of electromagnetism and weak interactions by Sheldon Glashow, Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, for which they shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. Their electroweak theory postulated not only the W bosoms necessary to explain beta decay, butalso a new Z bosom that had never been observed...
The discovery of the W and Z bosons themselves had to wait for the construction of a particle accelerator powerfull enough to produce them. The first such machine that became available was the Super Proton Synchroton, where unambigous signals of W bosonss were seen in January 1983 during a series of experiments conducted by Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer. The actual experiments were called UA1 (lead by Rubbia) and UA2 (led by Peter Jenni), and were the collective effort of many people. Van der Meer was the driving force on the accelerator end (stochastic cooling). UA1 and UA2 found the Z boson a few month later, in May 1983. Rubbia and van der Meer were promptly awardes the Nobel Prize in Physics, a most unusual step for the conservative Nobel Foundation."(Wikipedia).

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