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CHADWICK, J. (JAMES) & E.S. BIELER. - THE DISCOVERY OF THE STRONG NUCLEAR FORCES.

The Collisions of alpha particles with Hydrogen Nuclei.

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(London, Taylor and Francis), 1921. Blank wrapper. In: "The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science" Sixth Series, Vol.42, No. 252, December 1921. Pp. 873-1024, textillustr. a. 1 plate. (Entire issue offered). Chadwick & Bieler's paper: pp. 923-940, textillustr. ¶ First printingof this milestone paper in which the strong nuclear forces are mentioned for the first time.

"It was only in 1921 that Chadwick had first shown that, at very small distances, the interactions of alpha particles with the atomic nucleus did not follow exactly the inverse square law predicted from the repulsion of their positive electrical scharges. Chadwick concluded that his experiments showed that these nuclear forces are of "very great intensity". According to Pais, this is THE FIRST PUBLISHED STATEMENT ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF A STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE. This 'new force' interpretation was disputed untill well into 1920s."(Hey & Walters).

"In any event, Chadwick and Bieler's final conclusion avoid all reference to a possible electromagnetic cause for the deviations from the simple theory: "The present experiments do not seem to throw any light on the nature of the law of variation of the forces at the seat of an electric charge, but merely show that the forces are of very great intensity... It is our task to find some field of force which will reproduce these effects." I consider this statement, made in 1921, as marking the birth of the strong interaction."(Pais in "Inward Bound", p. 240).

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